Category Archives: running biomechanics

Running Technique Economy

If there was a technique improvement that would enable you to run at the same heart rate but faster, would you want to know about it? Running economy, improving your technique, might help you improve your times. This might be it. It’s not new but you might not have heard about it. Here are some videos (a video playlist) that will inform you.

Three Endurance Technique Development Exercises for Runners

This excerpt is from the book, Developing Endurance. It’s published with permission of Human Kinetics. Purchase this book from Human Kinetics and help keep in online!

Arm Swings

The athlete sits on the floor with the legs extended straight in front of the body; the arms are bent at 90 degrees at the sides. The athlete begins swinging the arms forward and back slowly. She gradually increases the pace, focusing on pushing the elbows back and keeping the movement in the sagittal plane (forward and back). When the arms swing very quickly, the entire body may bounce up and down. If this happens, the athlete should focus on using core strength to maintain posture and limit any twisting or cross-body swinging.

Focus points: Developing a smooth arm swing forward and back with elbows bent and hands relaxed

Butt Kicks

This is a traditional track and field drill that emphasizes the rapid hamstring pull. The athlete should allow the hips and knees to flex in order to maintain the range of motion specific to the running stride. While running slowly forward, the athlete alternately lifts the ankle vertically by quickly pulling upward with the hamstring. He begins slowly at first. The athlete can gradually increase foot speed so that he is pulling the heels up very quickly and taking a greater number of steps while moving forward very slowly (fast feet, slow body). The arms must be coordinated with the legs during this drill. The drill can also be done stationary.

Focus points: Mid-foot striking, awareness of using the hamstring to pull the heel upward, maintenance of a high stride rate, practicing the arm swing


The athlete begins by walking, running, or simply taking one or two running steps to build momentum. He pushes explosively off the ground with the back leg, driving the opposite knee up and forward to gain height and distance. The athlete keeps the heel of the driving knee under the hip, ready to land on the ball of the Continue reading

Physiology of tapering – in brief

It’s about that time of year where you will be racing soon if you haven’t already.  Leading up to your race, you will probably want to know or learn about tapering.  This excerpt from Tapering and Peaking for Optimal Performance is reprinted with permission by Human Kinetics.

Figure 1.1

Figure 1.1

main aim of the taper is to reduce the negative physiological and
psychological impact of daily training. In other words, a taper should
eliminate accumulated or residual fatigue, which translates into
additional fitness gains. To test this assumption, Mujika and
colleagues (1996a) analyzed the responses to three taper segments in a
group of national- and international-level swimmers by means of a
mathematical model, which computed fatigue and fitness indicators from
the combined effects of a negative and a positive function
representing, respectively, the negative and positive influence of
training on performance (figure 1.1). As can be observed in figure 1.1,
NI (negative influence) represents the initial decay in performance
taking place after a training bout and PI (positive influence) a
subsequent phase of supercompensation.

Figure 1.2

Figure 1.2

mathematical model indicated that performance gains during the tapering
segments were mainly related to marked reductions in the negative
influence of training, coupled with slight increases in the positive
influence of training (figure 1.2). The investigators suggested that
athletes should have achieved most or all of the expected physiological
adaptations by the time they start tapering, eliciting improved
performance levels as soon as accumulated fatigue fades away and
performance-enhancing adaptations become apparent.

The conclusions of Mujika and colleagues (1996a), drawn from real
training and competition data from elite athletes but attained by
mathematical procedures, were supported by several biological and
psychological findings extracted from the scientific literature on
tapering. For instance, in a subsequent study on competitive swimmers,
Mujika and colleagues (1996d) reported a significant correlation
between the percentage change in the testosterone-cortisol ratio and
the percentage performance improvement during a 4-week taper. Plasma
concentrations of androgens and cortisol have been used in the past as
indexes of anabolic and catabolic tissue activities, respectively
(Adlercreutz et al. 1986). Given that the balance between anabolic and
catabolic hormones may have important implications for recovery
processes after intense training bouts, the testosterone-cortisol ratio
has been proposed and used as a marker of training stress (Adlercreutz
et al. 1986, Kuoppasalmi and Adlercreutz 1985). Accordingly, the
observed increase in the testosterone-cortisol ratio during the taper
would indicate enhanced recovery and elimination of accumulated
fatigue. This would be the case regardless of whether the increase in
the testosterone-cortisol ratio was the result of a decreased cortisol
concentration (Bonifazi et al. 2000, Mujika et al. 1996c) or an
increased testosterone concentration subsequent to an enhanced
pituitary response to the preceding time of intensive training (Busso
et al. 1992, Mujika et al. 1996d, Mujika et al. 2002a).”